The purpose of this study is analyzing the impacts of agricultural R&D expenditures on national food self-sufficiency in OECD member countries. Although maintaining food security or self-sufficiency has been an explicit policy goal in many countries, the connection between R&D expenditure and the policy goal has not been addressed yet. We use a panel data set and employ a panel data regression model that takes into account the endogeneity issue of R&D expenditure data. Additional explanatory variables such as agricultural trade intensity and per capita acreage are also employed. Estimation results show that an increase in R&D expenditure significantly improves food self-sufficiency.