When Korean government pushed production-oriented rice policy for food self-sufficiency in the past few decades, rice farmers have applied too much pesticide and chemical fertilizer for rice cultivation and resulted in serious pollution problem in rural areas. Precision agriculture has the potentiality to achieve the reduced use of pesticide and fertilizer through variable rate fertilizer application while simultaneously increasing productivity through the large-scale farming. THe experiment was conducted to verify the effect of variable rate nitrogen fertilization. Economic performance of precision agriculture was analyzed by partial budget method based on production cost in the experimental farm households. According to the results, they are faced with large deficit for their farm management. However, if government support some part of cost for soil survey or GPS for precision agriculture, they show the possibility for adopting techniques of precision agriculture.